What Are the Types of Cybersecurity?

Convenience holds many advantages in a corporate world where accessibility and connectedness play huge roles. The technology deployed ensures employees can complete individual projects or work with a team anytime, anywhere. But of course, convenience also poses security risks. Ongoing cybersecurity threats from bad actors elevate the importance of implementing cybersecurity initiatives to protect data, devices, and computer networks. This article will detail the various types of cybersecurity.

What is Cybersecurity?

Protecting sensitive information and systems critical to an organization against threats and cyberattacks is the primary function of cybersecurity solutions. As criminals in digital spaces become more prominent and sophisticated, various solutions are essential to mitigating risk and damage.

Advances in network systems add to the complexity of protecting employees and assets. Malicious attacks can target mobile devices, servers, computers, and networks.

Organizations like yours can strengthen their security posture with effective planning and preparation. In essence, you need a security management plan to thwart attacks or recover quickly after a data breach.

Doing so ensures the integrity, availability, and confidentiality of business data and assets.

Common Types of Cybersecurity Threats

Criminals invent new ways to poke holes and breach secure data systems and networks. Staying ahead of cyber threats is unrelenting and requires resilient dedication by information security professionals.

Some cyberattacks are small enough to be easily contained. Others, however, can spiral out of control before your team can respond. All attacks require a quick resolution before their harmful intent wreaks complete havoc.

Here are a few examples of threats to your business systems and processes.

Social Engineering

Social engineering attacks are a type of cyber attack that relies on psychological manipulation to trick people into divulging confidential information or performing actions that can compromise their security or the security of an organization.

These attacks exploit human emotions such as fear, curiosity, greed, and trust to trick victims into providing sensitive information, clicking on malicious links, or downloading malware-infected attachments.

Examples of social engineering attacks include phishing emails, vishing (voice phishing) calls, smishing (SMS phishing) attacks, pretexting, baiting, and spear phishing. Attackers can use these techniques to gain access to personal information, steal money or sensitive data, or gain unauthorized access to computer systems or networks.

To avoid falling victim to social engineering attacks, individuals and organizations should be aware of the signs of these attacks, be cautious when sharing sensitive information, and implement security measures such as two-factor authentication and employee awareness training.

Phishing Attacks

As the name implies, hackers commit fraud through emails or other fishing exploits by pretending to be from legitimate companies. The goal is to trick the intended victim into responding so they can steal sensitive data such as credit card numbers and passwords.

These attacks are common among criminals seeking access to corporate environments, usually through an unsuspecting employee. Opening a link is easier to exploit than probing an organization’s defenses for vulnerabilities.

Education and security awareness helps to protect sensitive business assets from these cyber threats. Additionally, you can manage the risk of phishing attacks with security management solutions that can identify and block malicious messages before reaching the inbox.

Malware Attacks

Also commonly referred to as a virus, malware deploys malicious code that can cause serious harm to your network simply by an employee going about their day. For example, they may click on a link or open an infected attachment in an email.

If your current strategy uses signature-based detection or other legacy security solutions, an evolved virus may bypass the technology. The evolution of malware searches for new vulnerabilities to attack almost as soon as your IT team completes successful counterattacks.

Some effective ways to keep malware from infecting your network include:

  • Performing regular software and system updates
  • Requiring strong passwords and multi-factor authentication to access data and applications
  • Educating employees and clients about clicking links or downloading attachments

Malware continues to be a sophisticated, stealthy, and swift tool for cybercrimes. Therefore, you need a strong asset and data security plan. The goal is to prevent a cyber attack against your organization before damage is done.

Ransomware Attacks

Ransomware is a type of malware that steals and holds data hostage, demanding payment to unlock the encryption. This cybercrime often spreads through malicious software applications or email attachments. In some cases, ransomware attacks enter through remote access.

The infection from this attack may also impair a network. Whether data or a network, the ransomware adds an extension that makes accessing files and systems impossible. In addition, the attacker has the key for encryption.

Other common approaches to this extortion include:

  • Scareware – pretends to be tech support or security software that may display a pop-up notification telling unsuspecting victims malware was discovered on their system
  • Master boot record – encrypts the entire hard drive so no one can access the operating system
  • Mobile ransomware – attacks mobile devices to steal data from a smartphone or lock it for a ransom payment, just like what happens with an organization
  • Doxware – another attack on individuals where the cyber criminal threatens to publicly humiliate their victim by posting personal information or pictures


Spyware is a type of malicious software (malware) designed to collect information from a computer system or network without the user’s knowledge or consent. Spyware is often installed on a user’s computer without their knowledge or by tricking them into installing it, and it can be difficult to detect and remove.

Once installed, spyware can monitor a user’s activity on the computer, track their keystrokes, record their internet browsing history, and even capture sensitive information such as login credentials, credit card numbers, and other personal data. This information can then be sent to a remote attacker who can use it for identity theft, fraud, or other malicious purposes.

Some types of spyware can also modify a user’s computer settings, install additional software, or display unwanted ads or pop-ups. This can slow down the computer, cause it to crash, or make it difficult to use.

To protect against spyware, users should be cautious when downloading and installing software from the internet, use anti-virus and anti-malware software, and regularly update their computer’s operating system and software. Additionally, users should avoid clicking on suspicious links or downloading attachments from unknown sources, and they should always use strong passwords and avoid sharing sensitive information online.

Insider Threats

An insider threat is a risk to an organization’s security or data that comes from within the organization itself, such as an employee, contractor, or vendor. Insider threats can be intentional or unintentional and may include theft or destruction of sensitive data, sabotage of systems or networks, or unauthorized access to data.

These threats can be particularly difficult to detect and prevent, as the insider already has access to the organization’s systems and data. Therefore, it is essential for organizations to implement strict security policies, access controls, and employee training programs to mitigate the risk of insider threats.

DDoS Attacks

A DDoS attack (Distributed Denial of Service) is a type of cyber attack in which a large number of compromised computers or devices (known as a botnet) are used to flood a targeted website, server, or network with traffic, overwhelming its capacity and causing it to become inaccessible to legitimate users. Hackers or cybercriminals often launch DDoS attacks to disrupt the operations of a website or service, extort money, or exact revenge.

There are several types of DDoS attacks, including volumetric attacks, which flood the targeted system with massive amounts of data, and application-layer attacks, which target specific weaknesses in web applications or services. To protect against DDoS attacks, organizations can use specialized DDoS mitigation services, deploy firewalls and intrusion prevention systems, and implement network segmentation and redundancy to minimize the impact of an attack.

Injection Attacks

An injection attack is a type of cyber attack where an attacker exploits vulnerabilities in a computer application or website to inject malicious code into its systems. The attacker uses specially crafted input data to manipulate the application or website’s behavior, execute unauthorized commands, or access sensitive data.

Injection attacks can take several forms, including SQL injection attacks, where an attacker inserts malicious SQL commands into a vulnerable application, and command injection attacks, where an attacker injects malicious code into the command line of a system to execute arbitrary commands.

Injection attacks can have severe consequences, such as data breaches, data loss, and system compromise. In addition, hackers often use them to gain unauthorized access to sensitive information, steal identities, or execute other attacks. To prevent injection attacks, organizations should implement security measures such as input validation, secure coding practices, and security testing to identify and patch vulnerabilities.

Man-in-the-Middle Attacks

A man-in-the-middle (MitM) attack is a type of cyber attack where an attacker intercepts communications between two parties, such as a user and a server, to eavesdrop, steal data, or manipulate communication. In a MitM attack, the attacker positions themselves between the two parties to intercept and monitor the traffic. The attacker can then view or modify the data being exchanged between the parties without either party’s knowledge.

MitM attacks can be executed in several ways, including rogue Wi-Fi hotspots, malware, or DNS spoofing. Once the attacker has intercepted the communication, they can eavesdrop, steal data, or modify the communication to inject malicious content or instructions.

MitM attacks can have severe consequences, such as identity theft, data loss, and financial fraud. To protect against MitM attacks, users and organizations should use secure and encrypted communication protocols, use trusted Wi-Fi networks, and keep their software and systems up to date with the latest security patches. Additionally, implementing strong authentication mechanisms, such as multi-factor authentication, can help prevent attackers from gaining unauthorized access to systems or data.

Why Is Cybersecurity Essential for Your Business?

In recent years, more organizations have transitioned toward remote work options. As good as this is for productivity, it also opens potential vulnerabilities to cyber risks. Protecting your organization’s resources happens with solid cybersecurity strategies and solutions.

The silver bullet strategy does not exist. However, securing data and assets requires total commitment throughout the organization. Business processes, technology, workflows, and people all have a role in staying protected.

Proper security protocols are essential because:

  • Cybercriminals are not going away. They simply turn to more sophisticated tactics for exploiting cyber vulnerabilities within organizations.
  • A data breach can seriously damage your network. Stolen data, lost access, and other crimes can destroy client trust and your public reputation. Furthermore, trying to recover data after a ransomware attack gets very expensive.
  • Cybersecurity helps maintain business continuity. Solid information security protocols protect against errors and cyber-related failures.

Successfully keeping a functioning network of applications, people, and processes requires knowledge of the different types of cybersecurity tools. This is crucial to defending against cybercrimes.

Types of Cybersecurity

The U.S. Cybersecurity & Infrastructure Security Agency offers broad insight and specific tools for protecting your network infrastructure, digital assets, and data from cybercrimes.

Keep in mind that some security measures will overlap. However, that does not negate the importance of knowing which types of cybersecurity to consider. Doing so will ensure your organization has the right practices in place.

Application Security

Business applications are a main attraction for cybercriminals looking for ways to infiltrate your organization. Whether you develop and design your own or deploy mass-produced software, maintaining secure usage lasts throughout its lifecycle.

As one of the biggest risks to your assets and data, vulnerabilities are a primary way a cyberattack can occur. Other challenges to application security include:

  • Code injections like SQL
  • DDoS attacks
  • Lack of encryption
  • Misconfigurations
  • Weak access controls

Nevertheless, there are practices and solutions to improve your security posture with this type of cybersecurity. If you use cloud applications, a SaaS management strategy can help with tracking permission levels and risks.

Up-to-date software and applications can prevent your data breach from becoming the next headline. Risk assessment for vulnerabilities and patching ensures that the most critical updates occur first.

As you manage and optimize applications, you can also enforce access policies. With access controls in place, your organization is in a better position to reduce security risks. Implement cloud governance for employees and clients to control who can access the platform.

Cloud Security

Mitigating cyber risks associated with cloud computing relies on having a solid strategy. This type uses policies, processes, and technology to build a cloud security wall. Whether your organization uses private, shared, or hybrid clouds, maintaining security comes with several challenges, such as:

  • Less visibility for your in-house IT security team to see data stored in the cloud
  • Compliance concerns when using a public cloud, which requires additional regulatory compliance processes
  • A growing trend toward multi-cloud environments

Consider some best practice solutions to have a secure cloud.

Cloud access security broker (CASB) helps to identify misconfigurations. To prevent organizations from experiencing a data breach in the cloud, they can use a CASB solution. Basically, CASB acts as a security enforcement point between consumers and providers of cloud services.

Identity and access management (IAM) is another practice for cloud security. This solution refers to an authentication and authorization framework for access to your cloud infrastructure. As a result, unauthorized access is prevented throughout your cloud environment.

Multi-factor authentication (MFA) is an access type that does not require a password. Typically, password logins are a high percentage of compromised credentials in data breaches. Even if your user passwords are stolen, MFA ensures unauthorized access will not happen to your cloud resources.

Endpoint Security

With more end-users and employees accessing business network assets and resources from corporate and personal devices, endpoint security measures are a must. Hybrid, mobile workplaces require securing a range of devices such as:

  • Smartphones and tablets
  • Desktops and laptops
  • Modems and switches
  • Connected equipment like printers and sensors

Therefore, endpoint protection should involve multiple layers of defenses. Some common solutions and practices include endpoint detection and response (EDR), disk encryption, and mobile device management.

With EDR, your team uses a system to gather information from endpoint devices. Then, they analyze the data for potential security threats. The goal is to find real-time breaches in security to deliver a quick response to minimize or eliminate any damage.

Disk encryption ensures your data is protected at the hardware level if the system becomes compromised. This process happens automatically to render any data useless if it is stolen by cyber attackers.

Another endpoint security measure is mobile device management (MDM). This is used to protect devices such as smartphones and laptops connected to your network from leaks, hacking, and other cyber threats.

Internet Security

A majority of data breaches occur due to threats traveling over the internet. Hacking is the most common malicious activity during the first stage. Cybercriminals use web applications to infiltrate business systems.

Protecting your organization against these cyber threats requires consideration of several security measures.

DNS-layer protection. A device compromised by a phishing attack or malware will try to connect to the main computing systems. This additional layer of protection blocks any unwanted traffic and keeps suspicious URLs from entering the environment.

Using DNS protection is a particularly useful strategy if you have employees working remotely. Any device they use to connect to your business systems through the internet is protected from malicious attacks.

Additionally, you can use URL filtering to restrict access to certain types of websites. Set predefined restrictions based on content and other criteria to automatically block risky websites.

Authenticity, integrity, and availability are three necessary aspects of email exchanges within your organization. Email security capabilities ensure phishing, spam, or any other email attack vectors are unsuccessful in gaining access to your network.

Network Security

Three forms guide the types of cybersecurity activities and controls that you can use for network security. Based on your organization’s needs, your security management plan will defend the network infrastructure from:

  • Breaches
  • Intrusions
  • Misuse
  • Unauthorized access

Generally, the controls necessary for network security are physical, technical, and administrative. In addition to your network infrastructure, physical controls prevent unauthorized access to routers, services, and data centers.

Technical controls protect network data. This occurs for stored data and data in transit. Administrative controls cover network access processes and policies.

Multiple tools and technologies exist to support this category of securing your cyber resources. For starters, you can use firewalls as gatekeepers to monitor traffic as it travels across your network. Your security team will set rules and policies that define unwanted traffic.

A virtual private network (VPN) is a secure software that provides an encrypted connection between your network and other networks or devices. As a result, data is protected as it gets transmitted, while unauthorized access is denied.

Managed security service providers frequently use remote monitoring and management software (RMM). Providers maintain critical infrastructure and systems with RMM software without the need to be onsite.

Let Meriplex Prioritize Your Cybersecurity Needs

As a fully managed security services provider, we prioritize keeping your systems and data safe with a wide range of cybersecurity solutions. Every solution we offer enhances the protection of your network infrastructure, computing systems, applications, and cloud environment.

Meriplex works diligently to protect your organization from unrelenting cyber threats and attacks. With our partnership, you receive 24/7 security management, monitoring, and remediation. Our approach begins with an assessment of your current security posture.

Services continue with rapid incident response, security operations center, SIEM Monitoring, and much more. Contact us today for more details on our commitment to keeping your organization protected.